Answered By: Vicki Sciuk
Last Updated: Jul 05, 2018     Views: 5624

Most items you find in print or in the library's online databases will have a date. But when you are using material from websites, there may not be one.

If there is definitely no date posted or date updated, use the abbreviation n.d. (short for "no date") in the parenthesis where the date would normally go in your citation: (n.d.)

But first please make sure there really is no date. Blog posts are usually dated near the top of the article; so are news items or events listings. Online magazines, newspapers, and reports should have dates also.

Webpages with reliable information usually have a "date updated", so you know whether the facts are current, or may have have changed. If it's not near the top of the article, scroll down to the bottom of the page, or the bottom of the whole topic if it goes on for multiple pages. Clicking on a print icon or printer-friendly version often helps, since it puts everything in one document, with the date either near the top or the bottom.

APA Example with no date:

Author, A. (n.d.). Title of document [such as article, book chapter, webpage]. Title of where it is found [such as magazine, journal, book or website]. Retrieved from http://URL 

Bear, Y. (n.d.). My life in Yellowstone Park. Bears Life. Retrieved from

In-Text Citation:  (Author, n.d.); (Bear, n.d.)

There is a lot of information about APA & MLA citations from the CAS here:

If you are missing other parts of a citation, look at the boxes called Missing Information? in the brochures below.

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